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Provision of free medical care in Russia and elsewhere: review of regulatory and legal aspects

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The article reviews national and international publications on various issues of the free healthcare system. We present and discuss recommendations of the UN, the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization on full coverage of the population with free medical care. 

About the Authors

A. N. Daikhes
Research Financial Institution of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, Federal State Budget Institution
Russian Federation

Daykhes Arkady Nikolaevich – Researcher .

Address: Nastasyinsky per., 3-2, Moscow, Russia, 127006. 

D. V. Fedyaev
Research Financial Institution of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, Federal State Budget Institution; Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education
Russian Federation

Fedyaev Denis Valeryevich – Researcher at the Center for Health Technology Assessment of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Researcher at the Center for Healthcare Funding at the Finance Research Institute of the RF Ministry of Finance.

Address: prosp. Vernadskogo, 82, Moscow, 119571. 


1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation (adopted by popular vote on 12.12.1993) (taking into account the amendments introduced by the Laws of the Russian Federation on Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation No. 6-FKZ of December 30, 2008, No. 7-FKZ of December 30, 2008, N 2 -FKZ, from July 21, 2014 N 11-FKZ). [Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12.12.1993) (s uchetom popravok, vnesennykh Zakonami RF o popravkakh k Konstitutsii RF ot 30.12.2008 N 6-FKZ, ot 30.12.2008 N 7-FKZ, ot 05.02.2014 N 2-FKZ, ot 21.07.2014 N 11-FKZ) (in Russian)].

2. Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) (adopted in New York on July 22, 1946) [Ustav (Konstitutsiya) Vsemirnoi organizatsii zdravookhraneniya (VOZ) (prinyat v g. N’yu-Iorke 22.07.1946) (in Russian)].

3. The Charter of the International Labor Organization (adopted in 1919) (amended and supplemented in 1972) [Ustav Mezhdunarodnoi organizatsii truda (prinyat v 1919 g.) (s izm. i dop. 1972 g.) (in Russian)].

4. Charter of the United Nations (Adopted in San Francisco on 26.06.1945) [Ustav Organizatsii Ob”edinennykh Natsii (Prinyat v g. San-Frantsisko 26.06.1945) (in Russian)].

5. Research to achieve universal coverage of health services. World health report 2013. URL: en/ (in Russian). Accessed: 22.08.2017.

6. The world health report 2010. Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010

7. World social security report 2010/11. Providing coverage in times of crisis and beyond. Geneva, International Labor Office, 2010.

8. Rodin J., de Ferranti D. Universal health coverage: the third global health transition? Lancet. 2012; 380: 861-862. DOI: PMID: 22959371.

9. Bobylev S. N., Soloveva S. V. The United Nations: change of goals. World economy and international relations (in Russian). 2016; 60 (5): 30-39.

10. Busse R., Schreyogg J., Gericke C. Analyzing changes in health financing arrangements in high-income countries. A comprehensive framework approach. Washington. DC. The World Bank. 2007.

11. WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. Accessed: 22.08.2017

12. World Health Organization. The 2008 World Health Report: Primary Health Care: Now more than ever. Geneva; 2008.

13. Frenk J. Strengthening health systems to promote security. Lancet. 2009 Jun 27; 373 (9682): 2181-2.

14. Cueto M. The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care. American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 94 (11): 1864-74.

15. Human Development Report in the Russian Federation 2010. Millennium Development Goals in Russia: Looking to the Future. (in Russian). Accessed: 22.08.2017.

16. Fedyaev D. V., Lukyantseva D. V., Ignatyeva V. I. Suggestions and recommendations on optimization of the Program of state guarantees of the Russian Federation for free medical care to citizens. FARMAKOEKONOMIKA. Sovremennaya farmakoekonomika i farmakoepidemiologiya / PHARMACOECONOMICS. Modern pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology (in Russian). 2016; 4: 31-37.

17. Federal’nyi zakon Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 21 noyabrya 2011 g. N 323-FZ «Ob osnovakh okhrany zdorov’ya grazhdan v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» [Federal Law of the Russian Federation of November 21, 2011 N 323-FZ “On the fundamentals of protecting the health of citizens in the Russian Federation” (in Russian)].

18. Omelyanovsky V. V., Maksimova L. V., Tatarinov A. P. Foreign experience: models of financing and organization of health systems. Financial Journal (in Russian). 2014; 3; 22-34.

19. Kaneva M. A., Avksentyev N. A., Baidin V. M., Willingness to pay for voluntary medical insurance on co-financing terms: regression analysis. Financial Journal (in Russian). 2015; 5; 80-90.

20. Kravchenko N. A., Rozanov V. B., Ragozin A. V. Eleven-year experience in implementing the program of state guarantees for providing free medical care to citizens of the Russian Federation (successes and problems). Mandatory medical insurance in the Russian Federation (in Russian). 2013; 3: 22-35.

21. Flеk V. O., Zinland D. A. Modernization of Russian healthcare is the basis for ensuring the accessibility and quality of medical care to the population. St. Petersburg. 2011; 440 s.

For citation:

Daikhes A.N., Fedyaev D.V. Provision of free medical care in Russia and elsewhere: review of regulatory and legal aspects. PHARMACOECONOMICS. Modern pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology. 2017;10(3):59-65. (In Russ.)

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